Comic Book Artwork by Norman Saunders

©ourtesy of rogerwilkerson & theniftyfifties

artwork by Norman Saunders, 1953.

The Golden Age of Comic Books

One comic event cited for the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by a predecessor of modern-day DC Comics. Superman’s creation made comic books into a major industry. Some date the start to earlier events in the 1930s: The Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide‘s regular publication The Golden Age Quarterly lists comic books from 1933 onwards (1933 saw the publication of the first comic book in the size that would subsequently define the format); some historians, including Roger Sabin (in Comics, Comix and Graphic Novels: a History of Comic Art), date it to the publication of the first comic books featuring entirely original stories rather than re-prints of comic strips from newspapers (1935), by the company that would become DC Comics. However, Superman, the first comic book superhero, was so popular that superheroes soon dominated the pages of comic books, which characterized the Golden Age. Between 1939 and 1941, DC and sister company All-American Publications introduced such popular superheroes as Batman and Robin, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern, the Atom, Hawkman, and Aquaman, while Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles that featured the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, and Captain America.  Although DC and Timely (which evolved to become Marvel Comics) characters are more famous today, circulation figures suggest that the best-selling superhero title of the era may have been Fawcett ComicsCaptain Marvel, whose approximately 1.4 million copies per issue made it “the most widely circulated comic book in America.” Captain Marvel’s sales soundly trounced Superman‘s self-titled series and Action Comics alike, and the comic at one point was issued biweekly to capitalize upon that popular interest. Other popular and long-running characters included Quality ComicsPlastic Man, and cartoonist Will Eisner‘s non-superpowered masked detective the Spirit, originally published as a syndicated Sunday-newspaper insert in a quasi-comic book format. Comic books, particularly superhero comics, gained immense popularity during the war as cheap, portable, easily read tales of good triumphing over evil. American comic book companies showcased their heroes battling the Axis Powers: covers featuring superheroes punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, such as Captain America #1 by Timely comics in 1941 or fighting buck-toothed caricatures of Japanese soldiers have become relics of the age. Although the creation of the superhero was the Golden Age’s most significant contribution to pop culture, many genres appeared on the newsstands, including humor, Western, romance, and jungle stories. The Steranko History of Comics 2 notes that it was the non-superhero characters of Dell Comics — most notably the licensed Walt Disney animated character comics — that outsold all the supermen of the day. Dell Comics, featuring such licensed movie and literary properties.

Post-war and the atomic era

As with World War II, the ushering in of the era following the dropping of the atomic bomb in 1945 colored the content and subject matter of comic books in the mid-to-late 1940s. One blunt example is the educational comic book Dagwood Splits the Atom, using characters from the comic strip Blondie. Superheroes with nuclear-derived powers began to emerge, such as the Atomic Thunderbolt and Atoman. In the movie serial Atom Man vs. Superman, the titular hero fought a villain named Atom Man, while Superman‘s weakness to kryptonite recalled the dangers of atomic radiation. Contrasting these serious characters were atomic funny animal characters such as Atomic Mouse and Atomic Rabbit. One historian argues that these cute creations helped ease young readers’ fears over the prospect of nuclear war and neutralize anxieties over the questions posed by atomic power. The heroes began to fight communists, and some got involved in the Korean War.

As World War II ended the popularity of the superhero comics diminished, and in an effort to retain readers comic publishers began diversifying more than ever into war, Western, science fiction, romance, crime and horror comics.As a result, many superheroes titles were canceled:

  • Timely ComicsMarvel Mystery Comics with the Human Torch (#92, June 1949), Sub-Mariner Comics (#32, June 1949), and Captain America Comics (then Captain America’s Weird Tales) at issue #75 (February 1950); and a transformation to the Atlas Comics logo on comics cover-dated November 1951.

The subsequent Silver Age of Comic Books is generally recognized as beginning with the debut of the first successful new superhero since the Golden Age, DC Comics’ new Flash, in Showcase #4 (October 1956).